See an up-close view of Great Salt Lake’s shrinking shoreline — from Spiral Jetty to the state park marina

Kayakers capture water levels so low in early June that two bays were impossible to navigate as the lake continues to shrivel.

(Rachel Rydalch | The Salt Lake Tribune) Brian Footen kayaks along the shoreline of the Great Salt Lake while digital mapping on Friday, March 25, 2022. He is planning to paddle the entire lake in June.

People from around the world can now get an up-close view of the Great Salt Lake’s eastern edge.

Brian Footen and Rob Crampton, founders of the startup EarthViews, spent the first few days of June paddling the lake with 360-degree cameras fixed to their kayaks, collecting street-view style imagery of the lake’s shrinking shoreline. Footen started up north, at the Spiral Jetty land art sculpture, while Crampton started down south, at Great Salt Lake State Park. The two paddled until they met at Antelope Island, creating an intimate survey of what’s left of the desiccated lake.

“It’s a really beautiful, amazing place,” Footen said. “It’s frustrating that some of that beauty is caught up in the eerie, weird [view] you get from it being a dry lakebed. That expansiveness of the landscape would normally all be underwater, right?”

[View EarthViews’ imagery of the Great Salt Lake by visiting https://arcgis.earthviews.com/public/great-salt-lake-0622#77.]

Footen launched the mapping project in April in an effort to draw attention to the current “megadrought” and its toll on iconic bodies of water across the West. In addition to the Great Salt Lake, Footen plans to create street-view-style maps of Lake Powell, Lake Mead, Lake Tahoe and New Mexico’s Rio Grande.

The Great Salt Lake will undoubtedly present the most challenges. The lake’s western shore, which Footen plans to document in the fall, is remote and could be deadly under the wrong conditions. It also is much more difficult to access, with areas closed off by the Dugway Proving Ground and US Magnesium’s evaporation ponds.

Mapping the lake’s eastern edge, which is a lot closer to human civilization, presented its own setbacks. Footen had to lug his heavy boat — laden with camera equipment, instrumentation, and enough provisions for the dayslong trip — over a rocky railroad causeway bisecting the lake.

(EarthViews) Brian Footen crosses a rocky railroad causeway bisecting the Great Salt Lake.

“I had to haul it over about 30 feet of boulders,” Footen said. “That made me dip into my water supply a little harder than I had thought.”

Tale of two lakes

He also got a taste of the two different ecosystems that causeway has created. The lake’s north arm is effectively cut off from any sources of fresh water. The water is so salty little life can survive, including microbialites, the ancient living rock structures that serve as a foundation for the lake’s food chain.

(EarthViews) Kayakers with the startup EarthViews capture street-view-style imagery of the Great Salt Lake, including microbialites near Antelope Island. Thriving microbialites appear as dark clumps under the water. Exposed, dying microbialites appear as white bumps above the surface.

“That section before the causeway is really just a microbialite graveyard,” Footen said of the north arm. Crossing into the south arm, however, “the microbialites, they’re alive. They’re muddy, stinky, you can tell they’re active.”

But the north arm shows the southern end’s fate — if the Great Salt Lake continues to shrink. If the organisms that support brine flies and brine shrimp die off, that will mean no food for the millions of migrating birds that seek the Great Salt Lake as a reprieve every year. It could devastate multimillion-dollar brine shrimp harvesting and tourism industries as well.

And the ever-expanding exposed lakebed poses a significant threat to human health as it dries and turns to toxic blowing dust.

“It was interesting to look at the different types of lakebed,” said Crampton, who also works as a consultant measuring air pollution. “The farther you get from [water], the dustier it gets.”

(EarthViews) Rob Crampton departs the Great Salt Lake State Park marina as he sets out to document the lake's eastern shoreline.

Crampton said it was unnerving, when launching from the marina at Great Salt Lake State Park, to see rows of beached sailboats, stored and awaiting the day the lake’s water rises again — if that day ever comes.

“The last boat I saw was a Utah State rescue boat,” Crampton said, “which was parked in the south marina, and looked like it wasn’t able to get out.”

The only other vessel Crampton saw on his trek appeared to have sunk decades ago, the low water levels exposing it once again.

(Rob Crampton) The remnants of a long-abandoned boat found by Rob Crampton as he documented the Great Salt Lake's receding shoreline in early June 2022.

“The salt had just eaten all the metal,” he said. “Its aluminum was like paper, and the engine was a sponge.”

Islands no more

The lake is so low that the kayakers weren’t able to navigate Bear River Bay or Farmington Bay. They had to hug the eastern shores of Fremont and Antelope islands instead, which are islands no more.

“Sometimes you had to be hundreds of feet out just to paddle,” Crampton said. “I had to do a lot of walking. I was in 3 inches [of water].”

The kayakers collected their images from May 31 to June 5. The shoreline has continued to shift in the weeks since. On July 3, the Great Salt Lake shriveled to yet another record low. And with extreme heat taking hold of Utah this summer, the lake continues shrinking by the day.

(EarthViews) Rob Crampton drags his boat through the shallow waters south of Great Salt Lake's Antelope Island. To the east lies the dry lakebed of Farmington Bay.

Bonnie Baxter, a biology professor at Westminster College and director of the Great Salt Lake Institute, recently took visiting researchers to a group of microbialites near the northern tip of Antelope Island.

“They were completely dry, all of them,” Baxter said of the rock structures cemented together by microbes. “I can tell you where I was ... [looked] incredibly different from a month ago.”

The scientists were up to their knees in muck, Baxter said. The receding water had isolated portions of the lake into hyper-saline puddles. Some pools appeared bright red due to all the brine shrimp under stress. The island’s famous beaches, meanwhile, are becoming increasingly isolated from the water.

“It’s good [Footen] came out when he did,” Baxter said, “because he’ll have less access the next time.”

This article is published through The Great Salt Lake Collaborative: A Solutions Journalism Initiative, a partnership of news, education and media organizations that aims to inform readers about the Great Salt Lake.