Are drones the future of firefighting?
"We’re not going to run out and buy something without understanding things like cost, storage, maintenance, deployment and training," he said. "There are so many components to taking on a program of that nature that you really have to turn it out first."
Warbis said the BLM is further along in its use of drones. It has 16 ongoing projects that employ two drone types for anything from data collection on wildlife to aerial surveys and archaeology.
"Technology is getting way out ahead of us, and we’re working to catch up with it," Ferris said.
Warbis said he doubts the BLM will create its own firefighting drone division, instead contracting that work out with private groups that would respond to a la carte orders for services on specific fires.
"I may have 20 (drone types) on your shelf and go, ‘Yes, I can fill that need with this (drone).’ That keeps me from having to come up with pilots that are qualified to fly technology that’s moving so fast that it is obsolete by the time I buy it. . You’d have to put up a full-blown unit with the training and standardization and everything. And in this day and age of government budgets, it’s going to be hard-pressed."
Indeed, wildland firefighting costs are a major issue these days. Many members of Congress released a joint statement Friday, reaffirming their support for sweeping changes in how firefighting is funded and placing more money in coffers for prevention.
McDaniel’s report, however, notes the reduced hourly cost of the Predator drone, at $770 an hour, compared with a Type 3 helicopter at $3,500 an hour.
Drones could help in one of Idaho’s most treacherous fire sites, the Salmon River Breaks, where helicopters often can’t fly into smoke-filled canyons, said Randy Skelton, deputy fire staff officer for the Payette National Forest. In 2003, two firefighters were killed in the Breaks, an area known for high and erratic winds and frequent lightning strikes.
"I’m all for advancing technology if it is going to help out," Skelton said "If you don’t need to expose firefighters and pilots to that hazard, it’d definitely be worth exploring."
But Skelton said he’s not ready to replace experienced human eyes with drone sensors. Drones may be useful to cheaply monitor fires that the Forest Service lets burn in accordance with management objectives, he said.
"It is just not as 3-D as you’d like it to be like seeing it in person," he said of infrared, video and other imagery captured from the air. "It is better intel than not seeing it at all. But a tactician being able to fly over the fire and being able to give you real time feedback (is better) versus trying to decipher what you are seeing on a camera or infrared image."
Warbis agreed that a drone would lack the intuition many experts rely on when seeing a fire from the air.
"With someone trying to make decisions from data through a drone, you are not in the scene," he said. "You are observing the scene, and there is a risk there. . You get a sense, a full, overall picture and awareness. When you are looking at a screen, I think it would be too easy to sit back and not have as much of the picture as you might like."
Connectivity from those receiving the drone’s data with command on the ground may be complicated, too, Ferris said.
"Do we tap into their iPads? . If we are in the urban interface, there is pretty good connectivity. But once you get out into the central mountains of Idaho, well, good luck."
In the meantime, all fire officials interviewed agreed that the biggest concern about drones is not whether they’d be effective in fighting fires. Rather, they worry about private drones interfering with air attack operations.
The BLM and Forest Service issued a safety alert June 25 after a private citizen launched a DJI Phantom to film the Two Bulls Fire northwest of Bend, Ore. Warbis said the BLM is working hard to get the word out about the dangers private drones pose while meddling inside a fire’s airspace.
"It’s bad enough if you hit a bird. Think if you hit a 40-pound piece of metal — not going to be good," he said.