Instead the Kurds have deployed their own well-trained security forces known as peshmerga and seized long-coveted ground of their own in the name of defending it from the al-Qaida breakaway group and other Sunni insurgents who have swept through the north. The Kurds are unlikely to be eager to give up that territory, including the disputed oil-rich city of Kirkuk, regardless of the status of the fighting.
Al-Maliki, meanwhile, has been entirely focused on the security situation, spending hours each day in the main military command center, rather than politics, officials close to his inner circle say, speaking on condition of anonymity because they weren't authorized to release such details. Despite the attention, Iraq's mainly Shiite security forces have failed to successfully wage any successful counteroffensives against the insurgents.
Kerry traveled to Irbil, the capital of the self-rule Kurdish region on Tuesday, a day after meeting with al-Maliki and other Iraqi officials in Baghdad where he pushed for them to adopt new policies that would give more authority to Iraq's minority Sunnis and Kurds.
Kerry said after the Baghdad meetings that all the leaders agreed to start the process of seating a new parliament by July 1, which will advance a constitutionally required timetable for naming a president, prime minister and a new Cabinet. Al-Maliki's political bloc won the most seats in parliamentary elections in April but must assemble a majority coalition in the legislature in order to secure a third term for the Shiite leader.
Once a stable government is in place, officials hope Iraqi security forces will be inspired to fight the insurgency instead of fleeing, as they did in several major cities and towns in Sunni-dominated areas since the start of the year.
Kerry has repeatedly said that it's up to Iraqis — not the U.S. or other nations — to select their leaders. But he also has noted bitterness and growing impatience among all of Iraq's major sects and ethnic groups with al-Maliki's government.
Barzani's support will be crucial for resolving the political impasse because Kurds represent about 20 percent of Iraq's population and usually vote as a unified bloc.
Barzani told Kerry that Kurds are seeking "a solution for the crisis that we have witnessed." But, he said, "we are facing a new reality and a new Iraq."
Barzani did not explain what he meant by a "new Iraq," but he was apparently referring to the fall under Kurdish control of Kirkuk and other areas in northern Iraq that Kurds have long sought to incorporate into their self-rule region. Other Kurdish officials have even raised the possibility of pressing for independence, although that is opposed by the U.S. and neighboring Turkey.
Kerry said at the start of an hour-long private meeting that the Kurdish security forces have been "really critical" in helping restrain the insurgents' gains, although they have managed to seize several cities in the north and the west.
"This is a very critical time for Iraq, and the government formation challenge is the central challenge that we face," Kerry said. He said Iraqi leaders must "produce the broad-based, inclusive government that all the Iraqis I have talked to are demanding."
The U.S. believes a new power-sharing agreement in Baghdad would soothe anger directed at the majority Shiite government, something that is thought to have fueled the ongoing insurgency. Iraq's population is about 60 percent Shiite Muslim, whose leaders rose to power with U.S. help after the 2003 fall of former President Saddam Hussein and his Sunni-dominated regime.
"A united Iraq is a stronger Iraq," Kerry said in an interview broadcast on NBC's "Today" show Tuesday. He told ABC, "This is an opportunity for Iraq to come up with its own choice." Kerry also said that neither President Barack Obama nor the American people want a wholesale U.S. intervention in Iraq. And on CBS, he said the U.S. "is trying to move this process forward in what I think is a thoughtful, focused, disciplined way so that we have a structure in Iraq which will give us the greatest capacity for success."
Minority Sunnis who enjoyed far more authority and privilege under Saddam than any other sect have long been bitter about the Shiite-led government. And al-Maliki has been personally accused of targeting Sunni leaders whom he considers his political opponents.