But three years ago, it became public that the CIA had some kind of secret location at Camp Stanley, an Army weapons depot just north of San Antonio and the former Kelly Air Force Base, though its purpose was unclear. And now, a retired CIA analyst, Allen Thomson, has assembled a mosaic of documentation suggesting that it is most likely the home of Midwest Depot.
In December, he quietly posted his research, which he has updated several times with additional clues, on the website of the Federation of American Scientists. In an email exchange, Thomson argued that the Midwest Depot's history should be scrutinized.
"I have worried about the extent to which the U.S. has spread small arms around over the decades to various parties it supported," he said. "Such weapons are pretty durable and, after the cause du jour passed, where did they go? To be a little dramatic about it, how many of those AK-47s and RPG-7s we see Islamists waving around today passed through the Midwest Depot on their way to freedom fighters in past decades?"
Spokesmen for the Pentagon and the CIA declined to comment. A public affairs officer for Camp Stanley said its mission was to be a weapons storage and testing facility for the military.
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There is no outward indication of what would be one of the CIA's three known facilities in the United States, along with its headquarters in Langley, Virginia, and Camp Peary, a military base near Williamsburg, Virginia, known by its code name, "The Farm," that is believed to be used for training. Camp Stanley has a low-key gated entrance, and a few nondescript warehouses are visible from its perimeter fence. Rows of bunkers are nestled deeper into the base, according to satellite images.
The mayor of the nearby town of Boerne, Texas, Mike Schultz, said he knew nothing of any CIA presence at Camp Stanley. Henry Cisneros, a former mayor of San Antonio who served as secretary of Housing and Urban Development, also said he had never heard speculation about a CIA role there.
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The existence of a CIA facility at Camp Stanley first surfaced in 2011 because of lawsuits brought by Kevin Shipp, a CIA official who had lived with his family in a government-owned house there a decade earlier. His family grew severely ill from exposure to a toxin, possibly from mold in the house, though the base is environmentally contaminated. Their possessions were destroyed.
Shipp filed a lawsuit against the CIA, but the Justice Department invoked the state-secrets privilege to block it, warning against disclosing to a consultant his identity or any connection between his employer and the location. The New York Times identified Camp Stanley as the CIA site in 2011 based on the court records from a related insurance lawsuit.
Shipp also wrote a memoir, but a CIA pre-publication review board blacked out large parts about his family's experiences. His son, Joel Shipp, noting that he signed no confidentiality agreement, said he was writing his own memoir and wanted to sell the movie rights. He said he still suffered health problems from his teenage years, confirming that the CIA had sent his family to Camp Stanley, which he called "a secret base which had been used for illegal arms running and chemical weapons storage."
The 2011 Times article caught the eye of Thomson, who worked for the CIA from 1972 to 1985 and now lives in San Antonio. He searched through declassified documents and old articles, accumulating clues.
Several of the documents he found traced Midwest Depot's role without identifying its location, including a 1967 CIA memo linking it to paramilitary training of Cuban exiles before the 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion, and a 1987 State Department memo showing that equipment bound for the Nicaraguan contras passed through it.
The Times separately identified a 1963 CIA memo discussing 300 tons of C-4 plastic explosives that were available in the "Midwest Depot stocks." There were no restrictions on its use "because the items have world-wide distribution and are consequently deniable."
In a 2009 interview, a former CIA logistics officer said AK-47 rifles sent to the Northern Alliance after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks came from the CIA's Midwest Depot stockpiles. Arms funneled to anti-Marxist fighters in the Angolan civil war in the 1970s did, too, another former CIA official said this month, while emphasizing that he was never told its location.