The legislation, by Sen. Tom Harkin of Iowa, would increase the $7.25 hourly minimum wage for American workers in three steps until it reached $10.10 after 30 months. The minimum has been at $7.25 since 2009, with 3.3 million Americans earning that figure or less last year.
"We saw this morning a majority of senators saying yes, but almost every Republican saying no to giving America a raise," Obama said in pointedly political remarks at a White House event with low-wage workers. "And then if they keep putting politics ahead of working Americans, you can put them out of office."
All but daring Republicans to vote against the measure, Harkin said before the vote, "Who's going to vote to give these people a fair shot at the American dream? And who's going to vote against it?"
The answer came moments later when senators voted 54-42 to continue debating the legislation — six votes short of the 60 needed to keep the measure moving forward. Every voting Republican but one — Bob Corker of Tennessee — voted no.
Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid of Nevada was the only Democrat to vote with the Republicans. That was a procedural move that will let Reid call for another vote on the measure, underscoring the political value Democrats see in the bill.
Though Obama backed Harkin's legislation, the president proposed a $9 minimum wage in his 2013 State of the Union address. That has fueled talk by lawmakers including Maine's two senators, Republican Susan Collins and Independent Angus King who usually sides with Democrats, that a compromise might be the next step.
But election-year politics suggests that would be difficult.
Leaders of the GOP-run House have shown no interest in even allowing debate, giving Senate Democrats little incentive to cut a deal. And Obama has recently signed executive orders requiring a $10.10 minimum for many federal contractors, making it hard for him to agree to a lower figure for everyone else.
Polls show that while the overall public favors an increase, Democratic voters strongly support one but Republicans — especially tea party backers — are against it. Powerful interest groups on each side are also against a middle ground, with unions backing a full increase and business groups opposing one.
"We are not going to compromise on locking people into poverty," Reid told reporters, adding later, "We'll compromise, but not on the number."
Republicans in turn point to a report by the nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office, which estimated that an increase to $10.10 could cost about 500,000 jobs in 2016. They did not mention that the report also found the boost would mean higher incomes for 16.5 million earners and lift 900,000 people out of poverty.
"To pay for the raises, the money has to come from somewhere," said Sen. Mike Enzi, R-Wyo. "So if you like the dollar deal at your fast food, get ready for $1.50."
Instead of a minimum wage increase, Congress should be working on bills that would create jobs, such as allowing construction of the controversial Keystone XL oil pipeline from Canada to Texas, Republicans said.
Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, R-Ky., said of the bill's supporters: "These are the same Washington Democrats who have been at the helm of the economy for five-and-a-half years, the same ones who have been bragging about a recovery."
Democrats note that if the minimum reached $10.10 in 2016, it would mark the first time since 1979 that a family of three earning the minimum would have surpassed the federal poverty line. They also argue that the minimum wage, which began in 1938 at 25 cents an hour, has fallen well below its peak value. In 1968 when the minimum was $1.60, it was worth $10.86 in today's buying power.