"People are really drawn to the Koch model," said Anthony Scaramucci, a New York hedge fund investor and Republican fundraiser, who attended the Kochs' annual donor conference near Palm Springs, Calif., in January. "It's adaptive, data-driven, and they are the most propitious capital allocators in political activism."
The quiet revolt signals a broader shift in the world of big money. Clubs of elite donors in both parties are taking a more central role in shaping policy and campaigns, displacing party leaders and the outside-spending organizations they helped create after the Supreme Court's Citizens United decision in 2010. And the sheer scale of their spending is almost certain to rewrite the playbook for political campaigns this year, as candidates reckon with the strongly held views of some of the world's wealthiest people.
The phenomenon is not limited to the right. Super PACs blessed by Democratic congressional leaders have posted strong fundraising over the last year, bolstered by victories in 2012. But those organizations are now being overshadowed by donors like Tom Steyer, the billionaire who is raising a $100 million political fund with other wealthy environmentalists to battle politicians deemed hostile to climate regulation.
Parties have "lost the ability to control the process," said Jim Nicholson, a former chairman of the Republican National Committee, partly because of legislation that cut the flow of money to party committees. "The party can't coordinate with these super PACs and neither can the campaigns, so there's a lot more chaos and disequilibrium in the campaigns. And the party structure clearly has a diminished role because they don't have the resources they used to have."
Rob Stein, a founder of the Democracy Alliance, one of the largest clubs of donors on the left, agreed.
"The devolution of the two-party system has begun," Stein said. "Money is leaving the parties and going to independent expenditure groups. These now are fracturing the 'big tents' of our old two-party system into independent, narrow and well-funded wings."
Last year, Singer began organizing meetings of other big Republican donors. In June, he poached Angela Meyers, then the finance director of the Republican National Committee, to assist with the efforts.
The goal is to share assessments of Republican candidates and coordinate campaign contributions to the most promising, according to participants, rather than to advance any particular issue. Through the end of last year, Singer and close to 60 other donors involved with the meetings provided about $528,000 to Republican candidates for the U.S. Senate.
Those candidates - Rep. Tom Cotton of Arkansas and Dan Sullivan, a former Alaska attorney general - appeared at a private meeting of Singer's group in Aspen, Colo., on Friday and Saturday. So did Elise Stefanik, who is running for an upstate New York congressional seat and whom many of the donors regard as an up-and-comer who can help broaden the party's appeal to women.
An official at another super PAC, who asked for anonymity to discuss internal conversations, said the group had seen an uptick in commitments after pledging to give donors more input in spending decisions.
"We don't want people to write a check and disappear," the official said. "We're getting good ideas."
Freedom Partners, a trade association composed of about 200 business executives and entrepreneurs, most of whom attend the Kochs' twice-yearly conferences, has emerged as the dominant club on the right. It is focusing not on candidate contributions but on political nonprofit groups that do not disclose their donors.
Unlike most Republican outside groups, which are controlled chiefly by former party officials, Freedom Partners is overseen by a board of current and former Koch aides, who advise donors on where to commit their funds and provide strategic guidance to grantees.
Another advantage, donors say, is that, unlike the advertising-focused super PACs and nonprofits with party ties, clubs like the Democracy Alliance and Freedom Partners fund a wide array of causes. Freedom Partners alone funds dozens of organizations, including groups that focus on long-term grass-roots organizing, political data and Hispanic outreach - all areas in which conservative donors have clamored for greater investment after the 2012 debacle.
Most appealing, say members of the group, is the involvement of the Kochs themselves. The two brothers - who together run the second-largest privately held corporation in the country - are regarded by other donors as successful peers who share their libertarian worldview and have withstood heated criticism from Obama, other prominent Democrats and the news media. The Kochs have worked to personally court potential donors to their political efforts, emphasizing their own backgrounds in business and focus on accountability.