Some companies have said they are cutting part-time workers' hours to keep them below that threshold. Texell Credit Union in Temple, Texas, is one.
CEO Tony Hale told a credit union trade publication last month: "We don't like doing this because that takes hours out of paychecks and we know people need the money."
But the anecdotes of companies cutting employees' hours aren't showing up in official U.S. employment numbers. In fact, recent government figures show job gains, not losses. Employers are giving workers about the same number of hours as a year ago. And the number of part-time workers who would rather work full time is lower than a year ago.
And not every employer is looking to make cuts. Caterer David Borris, who has 25 full-time workers and up to 80 others during the holiday party season, said he's offered insurance for full-time workers since 1990. He believes the law has stabilized what he pays for insurance premiums.
Borris, whose suburban Chicago company is too small to fall under the law's mandate, argues that health benefits attract good workers. "Good employees ain't a dime a dozen," he said. "I need a cook who doesn't put too much pesto on the vegetable focaccia sandwich. I need drivers who don't get lost."
Still, it's a long time yet before larger employers would pay a penalty for not providing health insurance to full-time workers. That penalty, along with the coverage requirement, was delayed until 2015. So the law's biggest hiring effects could be ahead.
WILL I PAY MORE?
Many companies already are starting to change benefits to avoid an overhaul-mandated tax on high-cost plans that takes effect in 2018. One way a company can lower the cost is to raise an employee's out-of-pocket expenses.
So, your plan may introduce a bigger deductible, which is the amount you have to pay for care before most coverage starts. It also might require you to start paying more at the doctor's office in the form of a higher co-payment.
Employers think these moves also will help control rising health care costs, a problem that has been around longer than the overhaul. The idea is that patients who have to satisfy a $1,000 deductible before insurance coverage starts will shop around for the best deal on the MRI their doctor ordered.
Overall, the federal law could raise the total cost of an employer-sponsored health plan from 1 percent to 5 percent, said Tracy Watts, a senior partner with the human resources consultant Mercer.
Employees pay a portion of that total through paycheck deductions, and whether those grow will depends on the employer and the coverage. For instance, costs could rise if your coverage has to be adjusted to meet a minimum value set by the law or if your employer winds up covering more people.
The overhaul also requires coverage of a list of benefits considered essential, including things like mental health treatments and pediatric dental and vision care. A company's costs could rise if they don't already cover everything on that list. That could then be passed on to employees.
Taxes and fees required by the law also could add to insurance bills.