From its bottle shape to its taste, color, labeling and even marketing, Champagne owes its uniqueness to a series of widows from the early 19th century who used the sometimes mysterious deaths of their husbands to enter the male-dominated business world. The widows became so successful that dozens of Champagnes added "Veuve" to their names even though no widow ran the house — just for its mystique and marketing value.
"Champagne is the story of widows," said Francois Godard, scion of Veuve Godard et Fils Champagne house. "Women who lost their husbands, and then outshone the men."
Widowhood gave these figures an independent social status in France. Unlike other women — who were the property of a father or a husband — only a widow could become a CEO.
"In the 19th century ... if you're not married you're dependent on your father, you can't have a bank account and you can't pay staff. If you are married you are reliant on your husbands," explained Fabienne Moreau, Veuve Clicquot's archivist. "Only a widow can take this position as head of a company."
Experts say that Champagne was one of the first industries in the modern world that women shaped and in which they enjoyed a prominent role.
The stern expressions of these women stare out from portraits that hang in their sprawling Reims-based mansions in the French region of Champagne, the only place in the world where bubbly can legally be called Champagne.
The story of the Champagne widows begins with Barbe-Nicole Clicquot.
Once upon a cold October's day in 1805, Francois Clicquot, the young heir to a Champagne dynasty, suddenly died after a grape harvest, a few years after marrying the fresh-faced Barbe-Nicole.
It was a thunderbolt in the conservative Champagne landscape when the 27-year-old widow defied male opposition to take over the house.
Opportunistic and tough as nails, the young widow transformed the small house into a global empire. Madame Clicquot exploited the chaos created by Napoleonic wars to tap the European market, before taking in tipple-loving Russia and then the United States.
"Champagne owes a lot to her. Madame Clicquot was the first businesswoman in France, and maybe the whole of Europe," says Moreau, who says that the house created the annual Business Woman Award in 1972 to evoke her legacy and champion the success of female entrepreneurs around the world.
Working until she dropped dead at 89, Veuve Clicquot left behind a formidable legacy: She invented rose Champagne, the world's first Champagne label and — according to Moreau — was behind the distinctive modern Champagne bottle: slender and elegant in contrast to its clunky, heavy-set predecessor.
With the glass bottle, Veuve Clicquot smashed the glass ceiling.
Added to this was the invention of Veuve Clicquot's revolutionary technique of "rilling." It was a method of turning the bottle to get rid of nasty, cloudy sediment that stagnated in the drink, a process that made the beverage clear and pleasant. It's still used today.
Widow Pommery was next.