Quantcast
Get breaking news alerts via email

Click here to manage your alerts
Pakistani Shiite Muslims touch a horse, to symbolize the horse that carried Imam Hussein during the battle of Karbala, to pay tribute during a Muharram procession in Islamabad, Pakistan on Saturday, Nov. 24, 2012. Muharram is a month of mourning in remembrance of the martyrdom of Imam Hussein, the grandson of Prophet Mohammed. (AP Photo/Anjum Naveed)
At renovated Iraq shrine, Shiites mark a holy day
Ashoura » Push reinvigorates shrines neglected by Hussein.
First Published Nov 24 2012 05:58 pm • Last Updated Nov 24 2012 05:58 pm

Karbala, Iraq • It is the most impassioned day of the year for Shiite Muslims — Ashoura, when one of the faith’s most revered figures, Imam Hussein, was martyred in battle. Hundreds of thousands of Shiites who flocked to his resplendent, gold-domed shrine to commemorate him Saturday found the site has radically changed.

The shrine of Imam Hussein, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is seeing its most extensive renovation since the 17th century. The construction is part of a push by Iraq’s Shiite rulers to reinvigorate sacred shrines long neglected under former dictator Saddam Hussein, reflecting the community’s steadily growing pride and power since the fall of their nemesis.

Join the Discussion
Post a Comment

Now worshippers find the shrines’ minarets coated in gold and — in the most dramatic change — the sweeping plaza surrounding the mosque has been covered over with a series of domes to provide shade from the hot sun in the desert city of Karbala.

Not everyone is happy with the changes. Five experts on the shrine, including three who advised on individual parts of the renovation, say the drama of the shrine has been lost.

The covering of the once-open plaza, they argue, ruined the visual experience. Pilgrims no longer can see the awe-striking view of the mosque as they pass through the sprawling, light-filled plaza, then into the dazzlingly colorful mosque, finally reaching their ultimate destination: Hussein’s richly ornate tomb, they said.

"They sacrificed considerations of Islamic architecture to do it," said Haider Naji, one of the experts.

On Saturday, throngs of Shiites who came from across the country — some marching for miles on foot in processions — converged on the shrine, one of the holiest sites of the faith. Men cloaked in black beat giant drums, youths blew military-style bugles, and others carried platters of sweets to sustain energy, decorated with dyed pink and blue feathers.

Outside the shrine, the crowds held Ashoura’s blood-soaked, emotional pageantry of grief. Men and boys dressed in white burial shrouds — to show their willingness to die for Hussein — whipped their backs with chains and cut their heads with knives, drenching themselves in blood to mourn his loss. Men and women wailed in mourning, breaking down into tears.

Others dressed as the historic figures from the 7th century battle — Hussein, in green, and his enemies, in red, with turbans decked with feather plumes, leather battle vests and swords. A fountain of fake red blood bubbled before the shrine. A horse covered with a sheet stained red was led through the crowds, representing Hussein’s white steed Zuljanah, which is said to have been riddled by arrows as it tried to shield its wounded master.

Ashoura marks the martyrdom of Hussein in a battle at Karbala in the deserts south of present-day Baghdad. The event is one of the defining moments in the split between the Sunni and Shiite sects of Islam.


story continues below
story continues below

Shiites believe Hussain’s father Imam Ali was Muhammad’s rightful successor and that was he unfairly passed over by the caliphs considered by Sunnis as the rightful line. Hussein led a revolt against the Damascus-based Sunni caliph, who sent an army that crushed Hussein’s small band of fighters at Karbala.

In commemorations for Ashoura held by Shiites around the world Saturday, details of the battle are retold or recreated in passion plays that bring wails of sorrow and pity from the crowds.

The stories are deeply engrained in Shiites’ consciousness. The agonizing thirst of Hussein’s wife and children in the desert after the besieging enemy stopped their water supply. The heroic, doomed attempt to bring them water by Hussein’s half-brother al-Abbas, who — even after the enemy cut off his arms — rode gripping the water-skin in his teeth until he died in a hail of arrows. The killing of Hussein’s loyalists one by one until Hussein was alone, wounded and finally beheaded.

So strong are the passions that onlookers sometimes stone the actor playing Hussein’s killer, Shimr. At a Baghdad shrine on Saturday, the play’s "Shimr" broke character to weepingly ask the audience’s forgiveness, pleading that someone had to take the role.

The day has often been a chance for Sunni militants to attack Shiites, whom they see as heretics. Iraq has seen repeated deadly bombings against Ashoura ceremonies in past years, though there were no immediate reports of violence this year. In Pakistan’s tribal region on Saturday, a bomb blast struck an Ashoura procession, killing seven people, including three children.

The renovations at the shrine in Karbala are the latest evolution in what was once the austere, tree-marked grave of Hussein. Over the centuries, it became more ostentatious, culminating in the shrine built in the 17th century by artisans from the nearby Persian Safavid empire, according to Ghada Razouki, an expert in medieval Islamic architecture.

Under the shrine’s gold-plated dome, Hussein’s sarcophagus is drenched five tons of silver and 260 pounds of engraved gold. The mosque is etched inside and out with geometrical designs, verses from the Quran and the names of Muhammad’s family in green, blue and yellow. Tiny mirrors reflecting light line the arched ceiling above the sarcophagus.

The current renovations, launched in 2005, aim to provide more room to crowds reaching some two million pilgrims, said Sheik Salah al-Haydari, head of the Shiite Muslim endowment, which has overall control of Iraq’s Shiite shrines.

The plaza that surrounds the shrine has been covered over with the domed roof and will be expanded four-fold to 260,000 square feet by 2013, said Mohammed Kadhem, who is leading the $50 million project. One extension of 65,000 square feet has been completed.

The ancient wall surrounding the shrine has been replaced with multi-level buildings with extra prayer spaces, offices and a museum. The shrine’s minarets were coated in gold.

Al-Haydari countered the criticisms, saying, "We are continuing the architectural style that is there, like a river continuing its path."

Next Page >


Copyright 2014 The Salt Lake Tribune. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Top Reader Comments Read All Comments Post a Comment
Click here to read all comments   Click here to post a comment


About Reader Comments


Reader comments on sltrib.com are the opinions of the writer, not The Salt Lake Tribune. We will delete comments containing obscenities, personal attacks and inappropriate or offensive remarks. Flagrant or repeat violators will be banned. If you see an objectionable comment, please alert us by clicking the arrow on the upper right side of the comment and selecting "Flag comment as inappropriate". If you've recently registered with Disqus or aren't seeing your comments immediately, you may need to verify your email address. To do so, visit disqus.com/account.
See more about comments here.
Staying Connected
Videos
Jobs
Contests and Promotions
  • Search Obituaries
  • Place an Obituary

  • Search Cars
  • Search Homes
  • Search Jobs
  • Search Marketplace
  • Search Legal Notices

  • Other Services
  • Advertise With Us
  • Subscribe to the Newspaper
  • Login to the Electronic Edition
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Contact a newsroom staff member
  • Access the Trib Archives
  • Privacy Policy
  • Missing your paper? Need to place your paper on vacation hold? For this and any other subscription related needs, click here or call 801.204.6100.