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While there have never been wars inside EU territory, the confederation has not been able to prevent European wars outside its borders. When the deadly Balkans wars erupted in the 1990s, the EU was unable by itself to stop them. It was only with the help of the United States and after over 100,000 lives were lost in Bosnia was peace eventually restored there, and several years later, to Kosovo.
However, the EU’s success in making war between Germany and France unthinkable is beyond dispute, Those two countries tend now to be the EU’s dominant players, with the French president and the German chancellor often getting together to, in effect, hash out EU policy.
Glance comparing EU to United States
Here’s how the European Union, which was given the Nobel Peace Prize on Friday, and the United States compare:
EU: 504 million. U.S.: 313 million
EU:4.3 million sq. kilometers (1.66 million sq. miles). U.S.: 9.8 million sq. kilometers (3.78 million sq. miles).
Gross Domestic Product:
EU: $17.3 trillion. U.S.: $15.1 trillion.
EU: 10.5 percent. U.S.: 7.8 percent
Exports goods and services :
EU to U.S.: (euro) 387 billion ($501.94 billion). U.S. to EU: (euro) 314 billion ($407.26 billion).
Britain has always been a half-hearted member since joining in the 1970s, and is not part of the 17-nation eurozone that shares a common currency.
Right now, Europe is stuck in a three-year financial crisis caused by too much government debt. To combat this, governments across the region have imposed harsh tax and spending measures to bring their deficits under control. However a fall in government spending has had a damping effect on Europe’s economy — in the second quarter of this year, the EU’s gross domestic product shrank 0.2 percent compared to the previous quarter. A wide variety of indicators are pointing to a further slump in the third quarter.
The austerity measures have also hit jobs —the EU’s unemployment rate is currently 10.5 percent. But some countries such as Spain and Greece have rates as high as 25 percent. In Spain, every other person under 25 is unemployed.
Europe’s stumbling economy is making it harder for other economies around the world to recover and policymakers from all round the world are urging more decisive action from the region’s governments to deal with the crippling debt crisis to restore confidence to the global economy.
The region is the U.S.’s largest export customer and any fall-off in demand will hurt U.S. businesses — as well as President Barack Obama’s election prospects.
The EU has been seen as possible candidate for the Nobel for many years, and the members of the committee had previously praised the community’s significance as a promoter of peace and democracy in Europe. Jagland is also the secretary-general of the Council of Europe, a human rights group.
Ironically, skepticism against the EU runs high in oil-rich Norway, which is not a member and where popular opinion is firmly against membership. Norwegian voters rejected joining the EU twice, in 1972 and 1994.
Ritter reported from Stockholm. AP reporter Louise Nordstrom in Stockholm and Don Melvin in Brussels and David Rising in Berlin contributed to this report.
EU detractors slam Nobel Peace Prize decision
While some Europeans swelled with pride after the European Union won the Nobel Peace Prize, howls of derision erupted from the continent’s large band of skeptics.
To many in the 27-nation bloc, the EU is an unwieldy and unloved agglomeration overseen by a top-heavy bureaucracy devoted to creating arcane regulations about everything from cheese to fishing quotas. Set up with noble goals after the devastation of World War II, the EU now appears to critics as impotent amid a debt crisis that has widened north-south divisions, threatened the euro currency and plunged several members, from Greece to Ireland to Spain, into economic turmoil.
WHAT WERE THEY THINKING?
The vocal anti-EU politicians known as euroskeptics burst into a chorus of disdain Friday.
“First Al Gore, then Obama, now this. Parody is redundant,” tweeted Daniel Hannan, a euroskeptic European lawmaker — yes, such things exist — from Britain’s Conservative Party.
Nigel Farage, head of the U.K. Independence Party — which wants Britain to withdraw from the union — called the peace prize “an absolute disgrace.”
“Haven’t they had their eyes open?” he said, arguing that Europe was facing “increasing violence and division,” with mass protests from Madrid to Athens over tax hikes and job cuts and growing resentment of Germany, the union’s rich and powerful economic anchor.
And Dutch populist lawmaker Geert Wilders scoffed: “Nobel prize for the EU. At a time (when) Brussels and all of Europe is collapsing in misery. What next?”
THE SOUND OF ONE HAND CLAPPING
Britain, which has been an EU member since the 1970s but likes to keep an English Channel-wide distance between itself and the union, gave a muted reaction. Prime Minister David Cameron’s office had no comment — a safe policy for the leader of a Conservative Party deeply divided between pro- and -anti-EU camps.
The Foreign Office noted, tersely, that the award “recognizes the EU’s historic role in promoting peace and reconciliation in Europe, particularly through its enlargement to Central and Eastern Europe. The EU must always strive to preserve and strengthen those achievements.”
Conservative lawmaker and former foreign secretary Malcolm Rifkind, whose party is deeply divided on Britain’s role in the EU, probably spoke for many Britons when he called the decision slightly eccentric.
“If they want to give the prize for preserving the peace in Europe, they should divide it between NATO and the EU,” he said. “Until the end of the Cold War, it was NATO more than anyone else that kept the peace.”
Others praised the union’s role in reuniting post-Communist Europe but pointed out its greatest failure — the inability to halt the bloody Balkan wars that raged just outside the EU’s borders during the 1990s.
WHAT’S IN IT FOR ME?
Some Europeans wondered whether all of the EU’s 500 million residents could claim a share of the glory — and the $1.2 million prize money.
“I’ve just won the Nobel Peace Prize? How exciting,” tweeted CNN’s British talk show host Piers Morgan.
“As a member of the EU, I am delighted to accept the Nobel Peace Prize,” joked British playwright Dan Rebellato on Twitter. “I shall keep it in the spare room, in case people want to look at it.”
BBC business correspondent Robert Peston wondered whether everyone in the EU would get a share of the prize money, which works out to about a quarter of a cent per person.
“What will you spend yours on?” he asked followers on Twitter.
— Jill Lawless, The Associated Press
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