"The biggest banks have the resources to implement the new regulations, but if you're a smaller bank or a wealth manager, it may not make sense to invest in all that infrastructure," said Bose George, a mortgage analyst at Keefe, Bruyette and Woods in New York. "The risks are too high for companies to lend without a very high level of compliance expertise."
Investors drove up PHH's share price 12 percent to $23.78 on May 21 when Messina announced the company was in talks to sell the profitable corporate car and truck fleet unit. That was the biggest jump in more than two years for Mount Laurel, New Jersey-based PHH. The stock has since pared that gain.
Messina, who spent 17 years in executive positions GE's retail finance, mortgage and equipment management businesses, said on the July call that PHH would net about $821 million from the sale, after taxes and transaction costs. About $450 million will go to repurchasing shares, $200 million will be used for debt reduction, and the rest will be spent on expanding its mortgage operation with acquisitions and investments in technology, he said.
Messina said the goal for PHH, which also services home loans, is to increase lending to $80 billion a year. That would be a 57 percent increase from 2013's volume for PHH, which in the first quarter was the sixth-largest U.S. lender.
"We are seeing a meaningful increase in demand from regional community banks looking for an outsourcing solution," Messina said in July. "We think our model plays very well in this part of the cycle."
The sale of the fleet-management business, which leaves PHH dependent on the mortgage market, comes with risks. Without a steady stream of income from the unit, which accounted for 58 percent of PHH's 2013 revenue, the company will be vulnerable to mortgage-market volatility, Jeffrey Zaun and Stephen Lynch of Standard & Poor's Financial Services said in a report last month. PHH may not post a profit until the second half of 2015, the analysts said, as they lowered the company's rating to B+ from BB- while upgrading its outlook to stable.
PHH will report second-quarter earnings after the close of the New York Stock Exchange Monday. The company probably will post a loss of $7.4 million, according to the average analyst estimate in a Bloomberg poll, because of a decline in revenue as the mortgage market contracts. That compares with a profit of $90 million in the year-earlier period. For the year, PHH probably will lose $39.2 million before earning a profit of $28.5 million in 2015, according to the Bloomberg poll.
Dico Akseraylian, a PHH spokesman, said the company couldn't comment because of its pending earnings report.
In January, the federal Consumer Financial Protection Bureau implemented more than 1,800 pages of new mortgage regulations stemming from the 2010 Dodd-Frank Act. The rules include strict standards for the documentation of income, assets and employment.
The cost of originating a mortgage rose to a record $6,253 in the first quarter, up 21 percent from the end of 2013, according to MBA, the industry's largest trade group. The $194 net loss per loan in the first quarter compares with a profit of $150 in the fourth quarter.
Banks have slashed their lending staffs to the lowest level since 2001, the beginning of the real estate boom. In June, they had 1.7 million lending employees after the number declined for 12 consecutive months, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Banks shrinking or exiting their mortgage businesses will turn to outsourcing because they still want to offer home financing to attract customers, said Keith Gumbinger, vice president of HSH.com, a mortgage-data website based in Riverdale, New Jersey.
"Compliance is eating up lending profits, but banks need those mortgage customers for cross-selling their other services," Gumbinger said. "You have to bare your financial soul to get a mortgage, and that's information banks can use to see if you are a potential customer for a credit card or investment products."
PHH's size -- it has about 6,000 employees and is the second-largest nonbank lender by volume after Quicken Loans Inc. -- makes it easier to carry the regulatory burden. PHH, which handles every step of the loan process for its clients, sells 80 percent of its mortgages to Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and Ginnie Mae.
In many cases, customers never know their bank has outsourced their loan to PHH because all the work, even answering the phone, is done using the bank's name.