Because company-owned life insurance offers employers generous tax breaks, the market is enormous; hundreds of corporations have taken out policies on thousands of employees. Banks are especially fond of the practice. JPMorgan Chase and Wells Fargo hold billions of dollars of life insurance on their books, and count it as a measure of their ability to withstand financial shocks.
But critics say it is immoral for companies to profit from the death of employees, while employees themselves do not directly benefit. And despite a law enacted in 2006 that sought to curb the practice - companies now are restricted to insuring only the highest-paid 35 percent of employees, who must give their consent - it remains a growing, opaque and legal source of corporate profit.
"Companies are holding this humongous amount of coverage on the lives of human beings," said Michael D. Myers, a lawyer in Houston who has brought class-action lawsuits against several companies with such policies.
Companies and banks say earnings from the insurance policies are used to cover long-term health care, deferred compensation and pension obligations.
"Life insurance is one of the ways of strengthening the long-term health of the pension plan and ensuring its ability to pay benefits," Freedom Communications' chief executive, Aaron Kushner, said in an interview.
And because such life insurance policies receive generous tax breaks - the company-paid premiums are tax-free, as are any investment returns on the policies and the death benefits eventually received - they are ideal investment vehicles for companies looking to set aside money to pay for pension plans. Companies argue that if they had to finance such obligations with investments taxed at a normal rate, they would incur losses and would not be able to offer the benefits to employees.
But in many cases, companies and banks can use the tax-free gains for whatever they choose. "If you want to take that money and go build a new bank branch, fine," said Joseph E. Yesutis, a partner at the law firm Alston & Bird who specializes in banking regulation. "Companies don't promise regulators they will use it for any specific purpose."
Hundreds of billions of dollars of such policies are in place, providing companies with a steady stream of income as current and former employees die, even decades after they have retired or left the company.
Aon Hewitt estimates that new policies worth at least $1 billion are being put in place annually, and that about one-third of the 1,000 largest companies in the country have such policies. Industry analysts estimate that as much as 20 percent of all new life insurance is taken out by companies on their employees.
But determining the exact size of the market for corporate- and bank-owned life insurance is impossible. With the exception of banks, companies do not have to report their insurance holdings.
"There is no reliable reporting of the use of who's buying life insurance, of what they're buying it for," said Steven N. Weisbart, chief economist of the Insurance Information Institute.
Banks have to report their holdings because regulators want to know how much cash they could access if they had to redeem the policies in a pinch before the death of the insured employee.
That figure, known as the "cash surrender value" - or the amount they could withdraw immediately - provides a glimpse of just how big such policies can be.
Bank of America's policies have a cash surrender value of at least $17.6 billion. If Wells Fargo had to redeem its policies tomorrow, it would reap at least $12.7 billion. JPMorgan Chase would collect at least $5 billion, according to filings with the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council.