Some senators have said they plan to hold up Yellen's nomination as leverage on other matters. That tactic is likely to delay but not derail Yellen's confirmation.
Yellen would be the first woman to lead the Fed and the first Democrat to do so since Paul Volcker stepped down in 1987. She made clear at the committee's hearing last week that she's prepared to support the Fed's extraordinary efforts to bolster the economy until there are clear signs of a sustained rebound and further improvement in the job market.
As a result, the Fed's low-rate policies are expected to continue under her leadership. Yellen has been a close Bernanke ally, first as president of the San Francisco regional Fed bank, and then since 2010 as vice chair of the Fed's board in Washington.
Yellen and Bernanke are both considered "doves" — Fed officials who stress the need to fight unemployment during periods of economic weakness. By contrast, "hawks" tend to worry more about inflation that could arise from the Fed's policymaking.
In the view of Fed watchers, Yellen's testimony last week solidified her dovish reputation. She maintained that the Fed's bond buying program has successfully supported the economy by keeping long-term borrowing rates. And she minimized concerns that critics have raised about the bond purchases.
The Fed is adding to its investment portfolio with $85 billion a month in bond purchases. Its holdings are nearing $4 trillion, more than four times their level before the financial crisis struck in the fall of 2008.
Republican critics say they fear that by flooding the financial system with money, the Fed has inflated stock and real estate prices and could create asset bubbles that could pop with dangerous consequences for the economy.
Some say they also worry that the Fed's eventual unwinding of its investment holdings will unsettle financial markets, sending stock prices falling and interest rates rising and threatening the economic recovery.
Sen. Mike Crapo, R-Idaho, said before Thursday's vote that he would oppose her because of his disapproval of the Fed's easy money policies.