The reaction was swift and severe. Some defended Dawkins, saying he was merely engaging in a thought experiment, while others decried another eruption of what they see as chronic insensitivity, misogyny and flimsy "I'm sorry but …" apologies for repeat offenses.
Atheists say controversial things online every day. But Dawkins' position as the godfather of the modern atheist movement has revived a question that's been percolating for at least three years: Has the famous scientist become more of a liability than an asset for the movement he helped create?
"Regretfully, I think Richard Dawkins has become a liability," atheist activist and author Greta Christina wrote in an email. She has shared a podium with Dawkins at two high-profile atheist events, including 2012's Reason Rally in Washington, D.C., which attracted tens of thousands of people.
Many credit Dawkins' 2006 best-seller "The God Delusion" with swelling the ranks of atheism. His Richard Dawkins Foundation supports dozens of atheist organizations with its annual budget of $800,000.
"He is the reason I call myself an atheist, and he's a big part of the reason I became an atheist activist," Christina said. "But the unfortunate reality is that newspapers and other big media outlets have been making him into the major face of organized atheism — and it's creating an image of us that turns a lot of people off."
Dawkins declined to be interviewed, and a representative for his foundation said a statement he made on its website would be his final word on the subject.
Yet the current dust-up may have served as a wake-up call. On Wednesday, presented with criticisms collected for this story, Dawkins added to an existing post on his foundation's website.
"There should be no rivalry in victimhood," the addendum to the post reads, "and I'm sorry I once said something similar to American women complaining of harassment, inviting them to contemplate the suffering of Muslim women by comparison. But maybe you get the point? If we wish to insist … that all examples of a sexual crime are exactly equally bad, perhaps we need to look more carefully at exactly who is belittling what."
Dawkins was a famous evolutionary biologist before he touted atheism. His 1976 book, "The Selfish Gene," bridged the gap between academic writing and popular science and became a rare best-seller. In it, he outlined his theory of "memes" — ideas that travel within a culture through discussion, writing or images — which spread far beyond academia and into popular culture.
But it was "The God Delusion" that many credit with sparking a growing interest in atheism in the U.S. Along with best-selling books by the other members of the "Four Horsemen" of atheism — the late Christopher Hitchens, Sam Harris and Daniel Dennett — Dawkins' rising star mirrored the growth of atheism in the past decade.
In 2012, the Pew Research Center found 5.7 percent of Americans identified as either atheists or agnostics, up from 3.7 percent in 2007.
"Richard Dawkins has done a lot to bring atheism to a whole new generation," said Phil Zuckerman, a sociology professor who studies atheism and who also credits Dawkins with speaking out against the pedophilia scandal within the Catholic Church. "On the other hand, Dawkins seems to embody everything that people dislike about atheists: He is smug, condescending and emits an unpleasant disdainfulness. He doesn't ever seem to acknowledge the good aspects of religion, only the bad. In that sense, I think he doesn't help atheism in the PR department."
One of Dawkins' biggest missteps came in 2011, when he blasted Rebecca Watson, a young atheist activist who wrote about feeling sexually harassed at a freethought conference. In a now-infamous series of comments posted to the blog Pharyngula, Dawkins wrote in a message titled "Dear Muslima," "Stop whining, will you? ... For goodness sake grow up, or at least grow a thicker skin."