Copeland and Osteen have been criticized by some as teaching "health and wealth" prosperity theology, the belief that faith can increase one's wealth. But from his humble shoes to his simple Fiat, Francis has set a decidedly un-extravagant example.
"The prosperity gospel seems to be fundamentally opposed to the message that Francis has been spreading. But he has shown that he's willing to meet with just about anyone," said Michael Peppard, a professor of theology at Fordham University. "Joel Osteen seems to have a charismatic authority among a large amount of people. Maybe Francis is channeling Jesus: If you disagree with someone, meet with them."
Last year, Francis fired the German "Bishop of Bling," Franz-Peter Tebartz-van Elst, for spending $43 million on a fancy residential complex. Copeland, meanwhile, was one of several televangelists targeted by Sen. Charles Grassley, R-Iowa, in 2007 for their lavish lifestyles.
Copeland declined to provide full information about his finances, and the investigation wrapped up in 2011 with no penalties for the pastors who did not cooperate and no definitive instances of wrongdoing found.
Copeland was unavailable for comment about his meeting with the pope, but in an address to his congregation, he played a recording from earlier this year where Francis spoke on a smartphone camera and called on Christians to set aside their differences. Copeland led his congregation in prayer where many spoke in tongues, a common Pentecostal practice.
Robison, a Texas televangelist with Baptist roots who is not an advocate of prosperity theology, defended his friend Copeland.
"All the things I've seen him criticized for, I have not seen validity," Robison said. "I don't appreciate Christians standing back and criticizing each other."
Robison said he was born into the Episcopal Church but didn't have a "born-again" conversion until later in life, the kind of story he sees among many Protestants and Catholics.
"There are a lot of evangelicals and Catholics," he said, "who don't know Christ."
In fact, Francis' meeting may reflect a shift in emphasis within the papacy. His predecessor, Benedict XVI, regularly bemoaned the decline of Christianity in his native Germany and across Europe. In contrast, the Argentine Francis comes from a region where competition from Pentecostalism is one of the biggest challenges facing the Catholic Church, Peppard said.
As unusual as it might seem for a pope meet with celebrity Protestant preachers, the potential awkwardness goes both ways. While some praised Robison for going to Rome, others said Protestants and Catholics have too many differences, on issues that include the role of the Bible, saints, the status of the Virgin Mary and the nature of salvation. "Very disappointed in you James and Betty. Never forget the Inquisition — Never forget!" one commenter wrote on Robison's website.
But Robison said he and Francis found common ground in caring for the poor.
"I don't see him as presenting himself as infallible," Robison said of Pope Francis. "He's been to confession. He asks for prayer. He's anxious to apologize on [behalf] of Catholic leadership."
Osteen's meeting with Francis on June 4 was part of a larger gathering coordinated by the International Foundation, also known as "the Fellowship." Osteen was joined by Utah Sen. Mike Lee, a Mormon; California pastor Tim Timmons; and Gayle D. Beebe, president of evangelical Westmont College.