But, according to Zinke's report, President Barack Obama's expansive 1.3-million-acre designation hinders multiple uses of lands in San Juan County and does not accord with the intent of the Antiquities Act, which requires designations be confined to the smallest area possible for proper management of objects to be preserved.
"No doubt there are historic and prehistoric structures or objects of scientific interest within the Bears Ears monument," Zinke said. "These items and objects can be identified, segregated and reasonably separated. Objects of interest include dwellings, archaeology sites and drawings and areas that have a strong cultural ritual background."
While winning kudos from Utah's congressional delegation and local officials, Zinke's announcement drew a stiff rebuke from conservation groups and the five tribes that proposed the monument, which holds countless geological wonders and a rich archaeological record left by ancient American Indians.
During a news call Monday denouncing Zinke's report, lawyers for the Navajo, Ute, Ute Mountain, Hopi and Zuni nations said Utah leaders shunned a six-year efforts by grassroots American Indians to preserve the lands around Cedar Mesa, so the tribes petitioned Obama, who acted after an open and lengthy fact-finding process.
"These lands, the full landscape of the Bears Ears National Monument as designated by President Obama, are essentially holy lands to us and the other tribes that have joined the coalition," said Ethel Branch, the tribe's attorney general. "These lands hold plants, minerals and powers that are critical to our ceremonies. We rely on these lands to heal and strengthen our people and pass on our beliefs and cultural practices to our next generations, in other words, to continue on as Navajo people."
Some groups, including outdoor-gear maker Patagonia, have vowed to take the matter to court if the president shrinks the monument.
"This is an undeniable attack on our national monuments and America's public lands," said Jennifer Rokala of the Center for Western Priorities. "The decision should be an easy one — more than 1 million Americans, including Utahns by a 9 to 1 margin, have asked President Trump to leave Bears Ears National Monument alone."
Rokala said Zinke is recommending President Trump take actions "that are both unprecedented and illegal."
The interim plan Zinke released Monday did not give acreages or delineate exact areas for a "right-sized" monument. But the secretary highlighted the monument's namesake twin buttes, nearby areas on Cedar Mesa dense with archaeological sites, which presumably include House on Fire and Moon House ruins, and an area north of Newspaper Rock.
Likely to be excluded would be Mancos Mesa, Valley of the Gods, much of Elk and Comb ridges and Arch Canyon.
The San Juan Commission and the group Stewards of San Juan thanked Zinke Monday for listening "to all sides and work[ing] to make a decision based on facts." The commission has long alleged that the monument campaign was orchestrated by deep-pocketed environmental groups in an effort to lock up the land for elite outdoor recreation at the expense of grazing, logging, minerals and other traditional land uses.
"In San Juan County, we are fighting for our future," the commission said in a statement. "This monument designation was not about protection and preservation, the people of San Juan County have done that as stewards of the land. This monument designation was about control."
By shrinking the monument, the commission said, Trump and Zinke would be "empowering the local people with the ability to build a diverse economy and support their families."
Utah Gov. Gary Herbert called Monday's report "an important first step toward re-establishing sound land management practices" for this region.
"Throughout this process Secretary Zinke has demonstrated the utmost respect for local and tribal input," the Utah governor said. "I encourage the president to take this recommendation seriously, and I applaud the secretary for his balanced and responsible proposal."