Under SB72, prosecutors could seek a one-step sentencing enhancement if they can prove a crime, whether against a person or property — was driven by a belief or perception about the victim's ancestry, disability, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, race, religion or sexual orientation. That would, for example, increase the punishment for a class A misdemeanor crime to a third-degree felony.
The bill, which would repeal existing Utah hate-crime law, also includes protections for free speech and association, so a person's words, social media posts, or their membership in any group or organization could not be used against them, unless prosecutors can prove a direct tie to an alleged crime.
SB72 would also require prosecutors to meet the "beyond a reasonable doubt" standard in order to seek a penalty enhancement.
Thatcher says that means a perpetrator would have to specifically telegraph a reason for choosing his or her victim.
"You must have an overt action that declares to the world why you did it," he said. "It's those declarations that make this an act of terror against a community."
The bill was drafted with some help from a survey of laws from across the country which have been upheld by the courts, Paul Boyden, executive director of the Statewide Association of Prosecutors, said.
"This bill is solidly constitutional," Boyden said, and "a little cleaner" and more precise in its approach.
Bias-motivated crimes, or hate crimes, are considered particularly egregious because they send a broader message or threat of intolerance against a class of persons or groups.
State prosecutors have long been asking for a law with actual bite. They say the existing law is unenforceable because its use is limited to misdemeanor-level crimes and it lacks a list of protected groups.
The only known successful prosecution under existing state law was tossed out by the Utah Supreme Court, which said the statute is not a hate-crimes law, but rather an "exercise of rights law."
The FBI's national crime statistics report shows more than 12,700 biased-motivated criminal incidents and offenses were reported nationwide in 2015, the most recent year for which data is available.
Nearly 60 percent of the 7,121 victims were targeted because of their race or ethnicity; 20 percent were targeted for their religion and 18 percent because of their sexual orientation.
Utah's data for 2015 shows a similar trend. Of the 59 bias-related crimes reported to the state Bureau of Criminal Identification, 33 were related to race — with white victims the primary target — and 14 were related to religion. Ten bias crimes were perpetrated against victims who are from the LGBT community, the data shows.
Past attempts to enact a tougher Utah hate-crimes law have failed, primarily because the state's conservative Legislature had opposed any statute that offered special protections for the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community.