Fortunately, many public and private campsites can now be reserved online — avoiding such disappointment. But what about those times when you've forgotten to reserve a site, weren't sure where you would end up, or simply decided to go camping on the spur of the moment?
If this happens near state or federal lands, campers have an option known as dispersed camping. This is camping where there are no picnic tables, fire rings, potable water or toilets. This is camping the old-fashioned way — roughing it.
For those uninitiated to the ins and outs of dispersed camping, here are some tips for pitching a tent away from an improved campsite.
Know where to go
One of the best tools to help campers find a dispersed site is a good map. These can be purchased from the local Forest Service offices or ordered online. Local officials are also the best source for information on where you can pitch a tent and what, if any, restrictions there may be. Often in the summer, when the fire danger is high, there are restrictions on campfires.
A GPS is another good source of location information, since the palm-sized gadgets can help you locate your position in the woods as well as on a forest map. Combining the two helps ensure you are not on private property, where camping would incur a trespassing fine. Newer GPS software, in addition to apps that can be downloaded to your mobile phone, even show land ownership, making it so much easier to figure out where it's OK to unroll your sleeping bag.
In addition to Forest Service land, dispersed camping is also allowed on Bureau of Land Management property, which is common in Eastern Montana. BLM sells maps at its district offices. BLM lands are colored yellow and sometimes pink on maps, Forest Service lands are green and state lands are blue.
Camping on state lands is OK within 200 feet of a road and is limited to two days. The catch is that campers need to purchase a State Land Recreational Use Permit from the Department of Natural Resources and Conservation. Many hunters may already have a permit, since they are mandatory when buying a hunting license.
Even if you are going to be a "rough it" camper, there are still rules and etiquette to follow. First and foremost is to not camp within 100 feet of a lake or stream in national forests. That increases to 200 feet on BLM lands. On forest land, do not drive more than 150 feet off of designated roads to reduce damage to the forest.
Secondly, pack out what you pack in — that includes all garbage. Try to leave the site looking as undisturbed as possible.
On federal lands, campers are allowed to stay for 14 days. On Montana state lands there is a two-day limit.
It's often illegal to camp close to an improved facility, like a campground, trailhead or picnic area.
To go to the bathroom you will have to dig what's often called a "cat hole." Dig the hole at least 6 inches deep and keep it 100 feet away from any lake or stream. Pack out your toilet paper. There's nothing worse than finding someone's discarded toilet paper littering the woods. Cover up the cat hole and try to make the ground look like it had before you dug the hole.
Likewise, campfires can be built within a dug-up patch of ground, saving the topsoil to cover the ashes to extinguish and hide the fire from future campers. Always make sure to carry a bucket for hauling water to douse the fire.