She said Friday that companies can continue mining coal reserves already under lease.
"It is abundantly clear that times are different than they were 30 years ago, and the time for review [of the coal leasing program] is now," Jewell told reporters in a conference call. Officials also need to take into account new scientific data available on fossil fuels' impacts on the environment and on climate change, Jewell added.
During Tuesday's State of the Union address, President Barack Obama hinted at aggressive actions needed to curb America's greenhouse gas emissions, saying "it's time we change the way we managed our coal."
Utah politicians denounced the move as "absurd" and divisive.
"It is liberal fantasy land at its worst, and I will fight it every way I can," said Utah's Rep. Chris Stewart, whose district includes coal communities.
"This unprecedented shift picks winners and losers, and threatens the future of affordable and reliable energy resources that support our thriving economy," added John Cox, spokesman for Utah Gov. Gary Herbert. "Coal has been mined throughout Utah for more than 100 years, currently providing 76 percent of the electricity generated across the state. Utah coal is low in sulfur and high in BTU content, making it a uniquely clean and efficient resource for powering Utah, surrounding states and other countries."
About 40 percent of the coal mined in the U.S. comes from federal tracts, mostly in the West. Most coal is burned to generate electricity, accounting for 11 percent of the nation's carbon dioxide emissions, according to some estimates.
Jewell's announcement was hailed by conservation and climate activists who say a leasing moratorium is a long overdue step toward a clean-energy future.
"We must begin taking into account the full cost of the pollution created when we extract and burn coal. The resources on federal lands belong to the American people and must be managed in the best long term interest of the nation. The existing coal leasing program has amounted to an unfair federal subsidy for coal — not only cheating taxpayers, but putting a huge burden on our children's generation, who will have to deal with the consequences of our pollution," said Fred Krupp, president of the Environmental Defense Fund.
Energy industry representatives and Utah leaders are worried a moratorium would weaken the economy without delivering much benefit to either taxpayers or the environment.
"If this action does delay leases, it would be extremely disappointing. The lease process is already too lengthy. It's clear the president is more concerned with satisfying his political benefactors than doing what's best for the American people," said Mark Compton, of the Utah Mining Association.
"I don't see anything wrong with a review on a periodic basis. But if you are interested in a fair return to the taxpayer, the federal coal program generates billions on federal leases to the U.S. economy," Compton said. "Increasing royalty rates would do exactly what environmental groups want, and that's keep coal in the ground. The return to taxpayer goes to zero."
In Utah, the SUFCO mine in Sanpete County, Coal Hollow in Alton and Lila Canyon Mine in Carbon County all propose developing large coal tracts adjacent to their operations. UtahAmerican Energy, which operates Lila Canyon in the Book Cliffs near East Carbon, is looking to lease the 4,200-acre Williams Draw tract, which holds 32 million tons.
The Bureau of Land Management is conducting environmental reviews on Williams Draw and Coal Hollow. Last year, it signed off on the Green Hollow lease and sold the Flat Canyon coal tract to Skyline Mine operator Bowie Resource Partners. That sale is under litigation.
It is unclear whether Friday's announcement will affect current coal production. The nation's electricity sector has been moving away from coal in favor of natural gas, and companies have stockpiled billions of tons of coal under existing leases.
But Rep. Rob Bishop, the Utah Republican who chairs the House Natural Resources Committee, said the lease moratorium will hurt Americans and proves that Obama's pledge supporting an "all-of-the-above" energy agenda "was an election-year lie."