No writer was more competitive, or ambitious, than Mailer, author of such epics as The Naked and the Dead and The Executioner's Song, and critics would likely hand him the prize for his generation. But if sales are the measure of the public's mind, then honors clearly belong to Vonnegut.
As Mailer himself once said, Vonnegut was the Mark Twain of his time - ''He even looked liked him. Everybody loved Vonnegut, whereas Norman was a much more controversial figure,'' says J. Michael Lennon, the literary executor for Mailer, who died Nov. 10 at age 84.
''I remember being given an honorary degree a few years ago at Lehigh University, when Vonnegut was the commencement speaker, and you could tell these kids had read him in a way that they hadn't read Mailer or Styron,'' says Dana Gioia, poet and chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts.
According to Nielsen BookScan, which tracks about 70 percent of industry sales, Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse-Five has sold about 280,000 copies since 2006, more than four times the combined pace of six of the most talked about books of the past 60 years: Mailer's The Naked and the Dead, The Armies of the Night and The Executioner's Song, and Styron's The Confessions of Nat Turner, Sophie's Choice and Darkness Visible.
While Vonnegut's passing last April led to a significant jump in sales for his books, the change was far smaller for the works of Mailer and Styron, both of whom, unlike Vonnegut, won Pulitzer Prizes. Books by all three writers are still used in classrooms, but Vonnegut's are read more both on and off campus.
''Mailer's books don't have the same staying power [for our customers],'' says Bob Wietrak, a vice president of merchandising at Barnes & Noble, Inc. ''People get hooked on Vonnegut when they're young and they stay with him. . . . We have summer reading lists, and we find adults reading Vonnegut and they're thinking, 'I'm going to read this again.' ''
''I think it has something to do with the fact that Vonnegut has more of a word-of-mouth following. He's a little more pulpy and countercultural,'' says Keith McEvoy, general manager of Shakespeare & Co. Booksellers in downtown Manhattan. ''We had a huge spike after Vonnegut died, but I didn't see anything like that for Mailer or Styron.''
Other books by Vonnegut are also strongly outselling his contemporaries. Cat's Cradle has sold nearly 130,000 copies since 2006, according to Nielsen BookScan, and Breakfast of Champions totals 74,000. Meanwhile, Styron's The Confessions of Nat Turner, winner of the Pulitzer in 1968, has sold less than 2,000 since 2006, while Mailer's The Armies of the Night, a Pulitzer winner in 1969, sold just 3,000.
Size is an advantage for Vonnegut. Many of his books were less than 200 pages and easily read at a single sitting. You could likely speed through half a dozen of Vonnegut's novels in the time it takes to finish the 1,000-plus page Executioner's Song.